Written by Stanislaw Roszkowski and Jaroslaw Wartacz of Warsaw Poland
(Translated by Monika Krosnicka)
Where do Poland’s come from? Is there any common foremother of them? Why are there various names of Poland’s in different countries? These are really interesting and fascinating questions. For sure, there are no breeders of Poland’s in Europe, or maybe even in the whole World, who wouldn’t wonder about this subject. How big emotions are here, how many arguments. There is no reason to be surprised about this - because in case of Poland’s, this is a matter of the most beautiful hen (chicken) in the World. Until this time due to many years of isolation of Poland on international area, our breeders had no possibility to present their arguments. There is occasion today to catch up with backing. We hope, that our western colleagues will be interested to read, what opinions do we have in this matter.
After gaining an insight into this problem and penetrating consideration in all possible areas – genetic, historic, geographic, culture, language – we will try to present clear picture of descent for both Poland’s and related races.
It is commonly accepted, and we also induce to this theory, that Poland’s began their conquest of Europe from areas of southern Russia. Primordial Poland’s came to these areas from Asia in 13th century together with nomadic Mongolian people and with Chyngis-chan, which empire in those times ranged from Pacific to Black Sea.
Nowadays, after tens years of non-existing there are regenerating the Pavlovskaya fowl in Russia (about this race we will write more detailed in further part of this special issue), which nowadays are practically unknown in Europe due to many years of isolation of this country on international arena. Even Pallas mentioned at second half of 18th century about this fowl describing its silver and gold variety. We are disposed to give a thesis, that the Pavlovskaya fowls survived until our times with unchanged form due to mentioned isolation of Russia – probably this is exactly or similar haw the foremother of present Poland’s looked like in middle-age.
Surprising is also unusual and non-accidental similarity of Pavlovskaya fowl to Sultans, what is a proof of heir common roots.
Subsequently chickens were taking over by Ruthenian and as result of Union of Lublin they occur within borders of Poland. XVI century in Poland, it was a period of forming magnates, but the biggest properties was built on Eastern Border Lands. Owners of latyfundias see their way to “tourist” traveling and also to give their sons education in European universities. They were traveling in most of cases to Italy. Those days there were two universities in the running – in Bologna and in Padua. Because of technical reasons such traveling was taking a long time, so master was going with all his property, he was taking with him everything, what was needed and necessary – even animals. At 17th century magnates also supported private army, usually they were foreign soldiers of fortune, which after agreement period came back to their countries taking with them everything they collected. Those times it was a period of growing of barter exchange, with leadership of Holland
Poland of XV, and especially of XVI century was the biggest country of contemporary Europe. Frequent contacts with Tatars – economic or military had to be everyday life. Borders of Poland leaded almost to Krym – from that place probably Polish chickens dispersed through all contemporary eastern Poland – present Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and western Russia. At these times Poland was wealthy, rich and peaceful, and those factors always helps to development of stable breeding, even if breeding work at those times wasn’t of course similar to present one, which use scientific knowledge, including genetics. Every breed needs much peace for tens of years. That’s why even little war cause huge devastation of it. If the husbandry is carrying out to feast our eyes on, wonted or not for further breeding there are chosen witch characteristic features – in this case with characteristics crest. So even at those times people living Eastern Europe area was carrying out almost incidentally, first breeding works.
In our opinion all contemporary Poland’s in Europe came to it on two different trails. The first one is north trail. On this way hens from area of Eastern Europe migrated directly to Netherlands and to Germany. To testify to it there are many local types existing, starting from houdans, creve cour, breds, Brabant and finishing on Appenzellers, which from the look are similar to Pavlovskaya fowls. The second is south trail. Polish crested chicken, which got to Italy as a result of crossing with local chickens, lost parts of their features - these was namely heavily feathered shanks and the fifth finger, and because of the fact, that all Mediterranean races have very uniform types, they form population with very regular shape of body– nucleus of future race. Primordial Poland’s was speckled almost for sure, similar to contemporary (and also those, described by Pallas) Pavlovskaya fowls, and as well as appenzellers, barbarian or eulens. In this moment of our research we cannot answer the question, did crested chickens get characteristic scaly in Italy? Maybe it was later, when English, Germans and Dutchmen started work on Poland’s. Related Italian races doesn’t have such a draw, what means, that they didn’t have it long time ago. The only exception is Andalusia’s, which have black scales on blue background. What is interesting, so perfect scales on this blue background we saw only at big crested chickens during last year exhibition in Radom city in Poland. Blue varieties of these races doesn’t have so distinct draw.
Special instance – Aldrovandi (border I)
For separate discussion deserve amazing instance of Italian ornithologist Ulisses Aldrovandi, who published his work „Ornithologiae” in the year of 1600, where was described among other things black crested chickens, which was met in place Pilferer in neighborhood of Padua. The author and his work are present in all compilations which ambition is to give presentation of history of genesis of Poland’s. These are keywords, skeleton keys which make easier to open every door and which explain every doubt. They are like Buddhist mantra, something in sort of spell, which there are not speak about but which we accept a’priori. No else that Aldrovandi is „maker” of name, which is used in German languages countries to describe crested breaded chickens – Padoue, while he never use such a term.
Somebody will say – this is the oldest source describing crested, from which we should take knowledge on interested for us subject. Beside lets give some respect to the history, to the author who scooped others ornithologists and scientists for about one hundred years. Of course we should admire old masters. But we cannot be impressionable like in this case, unfortunately we have met such an instance here. What did this ornithologist do? He described race of hens met in neighborhood of Padua. He didn’t describe any other crested fowls, which was popularly occurring even at those times not only on areas on east from Poland, in Poland as in Western Europe. Furthermore – he didn’t describe also other crested fowls, which was occurring on other areas of Italy, he concentrated on this one, Italian place. His drawing signed Gallus Patavinus – concerning to mythological at some part, known form Aristotle patavinian fowls. It follows that he didn’t think about Crested fowls as indigenous Italian race. He wrote, that he s a w in Padua crested chickens and named theme patavian, so is name Padoue rather questionable merit of translators „Ornithologiae”? So this wasn’t him, but all following scientists started to use name Padoue, and they as an ironic invoked to him. Why? Word “padoue” made international career while the Italian weren’t know as an empire of breeding Crested fowls in opposite to English, Dutchmen or Germans. What would be happened if Aldrovandi met this type op fowls for example in Rome, or even worse in Paris? How would we call them? Roman or Parisian? If our hens took their name from any of English or Dutch cities instead from Padua – it would have its own historical logic. Padua has no logic. Great works of history are great because each individual case is analyzed on wider background, historical background. We could say in commonly way – from detail to totality. In this specified instance, we have nothing to do with such a thing. This is author in neighborhood of Padua met s o m e crested hens, he gave them s o m e name. That’s all. Once again let us ask, why others did start to use name “Padoue” so eagerly? Well that’s why, that name “Poland’s”, as well as any other polish things, to put it mildly, somehow associated with something worse. They preferred “Padoue” even though this name had and still has no historical reason. In addition, presented on drawing Patvinian fowl and Poland’s (Padoue) are as different as chalk and cheese.
By the way we can’t to resist to some reflection. On example of Aldrovandi we can see haw strong magic a written word has Average readers of newspapers take as an axiom this, what is printed on a paper. Many times we can hear this kind of opinion, when some “doubting Thomas” has doubts about some event – but they w r o t e t h i s in newspaper! One of he authors of this elaboration was a journalist in one of the biggest weekly magazines with half of million editions for several years. He perfectly knows mechanisms, how mass media can make a beautiful, Arabian mare form poor jade. Some of them go further – they can do beautiful mare form a ram.
It is needed to notice, that Poland Fowls didn’t migrate from East to West through Poland country with unchanged form. Originally they had rather thin and ruffled crests, as well as Pavlovskaya fowls or Brabarian, but later polish authors give attention to distinct development of crest. Konstanty from Siemuszkowo in the year of 1866, in his excellent Historyi naturalnej < (Natural history) > Swojskie kury < (Familiar fowls) which is reading even today because of its interesting language, he mentioned just like that about chickens with full and filled crest, in additional they was very popular, and 20 years later Gaff was describing white crested black. This is interesting, because this kind of flows survived until these days, as wrote our contemporary author prof. Ksiazkiewicz, in Malopolska (Little Poland) and Kielecczyzna region. One of the authors of this publication has seen this kind of hens by his own science he was a child in his neighborhood it’s mean in Lubelszczyzna region. These fowls were and they are quite often occurring on the villages, where for sure they weren’t treat as decoration, but as usable poultry. They are occurring the most frequently in colors red, black, hawk and goshawk, in their crests there is often quite big number of white feathers. Their crests consist of not very long feathers, but they are dense and ball shaped. They combs are quite well grown-up, but it is like it “pushed” to the front of head, rotated and sometimes divided on two. Older chatelaines remember, that at past times quite often there was occurring among them hens with five fingers. These fowls have much more massive structure of the body and they was heavier then present Poland’s – this is conform to Graff’s description. Only addition of Mediterranean blood gave them slight structure of the body.
It is well known, that big contribution to breeding of Poland's had English. In their case we have big dilemma – if there was using name Padoue in German language countries, why were they known in England since ever as Polish fowls? In our opinion it is easy to explain. Unfortunately the politic have here big meaning. Because England lays in some way next to Europe, the word Poland haven’t disturb ever to English (we will give more wide comments about polish nature of our fowls later). They have ability to be neutral and not to change functioned since centuries name. What is interesting, in English language countries white crested fowls are one of colors variety of non bearded Poland’s – they do not divide Poland’s for white crested and bearded like in our country, but they divided them to bearded and non-bearded.
Other interesting case is white crested called in Europe Holland’s. This Fowl has no similarity to fowls from northern-western Europe, but it has almost identical structure of the body as crested bearded (Padoue). There is little probability that Dutchmen had some special contribution with creating of archer of this fowl variety. Beside Gallus Patavinus of Aldrovandi is in fact white crested black. Graff conform this, describing white crested as native polish fowls in the year of 1887. These fowls as well as other varieties came from Italy to England – probably it was not until 17th or even in 19th, they came already as completely formed race. Why has white crested a name of Holland’s in Western Europe countries, especially in German language countries? Well because, that without any discussion Dutchmen had eminent effect to present look of these fowls. Fact, that it looks like this, and not in other way it is their merit. To such an extent that Dutchmen absolutely deserve to consider white crested (Hollander haubenhunter) as one of their native races.
Even in 19th century Polish fowls had name Noble fowls. But not only this group of society adored these fowl. Yes, magnates and middle class of that time, it means nobility was breeding poultry for a pleasure, poorer and estates owners, taking in to consideration a big usability of these fowls and also calculable profits. There is no literature from those times, especially science researches, because it couldn’t be, nobody at those times treated poultry breeding in serious way. Our arguments we based on usually incidental mentioning in works of history or literature. Results from all these sources are, how much popular at those times crested fowls were. As a proof we mention some examples:
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Jacób Kazimierz Haur, in his work from the year of 1693 "Sklad albo skarbiec znakomitych sekretov o Ekonomii ziemianskiej” (“Store or vault of excellent secrets about economy of estate owning gentry”) he recommends for stud „wybierac albo k u r y c z u b a t e albo grzebieni wynioslych z puszkami czerwonemi. Te sa pewniejsze do plodu, pozytku i upatrywac i tego, aby mialy u stopy piec palców. Cudzoziemskich kokoszy nie brac, bo swojskie lacniejsze, do okarmienia y owocu niesienia.(to choose either crested fowls or fowls with haughty comps with reds puffs. These are more reliable for procreation, benefits and it should be observed if they have feet with five fingers. Do not take foreign hens, because familiar are better to feeding and for laying).
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Adam Mickiewicz, our national bard, the greatest polish poet gave us a proof, how common were crested fowls in Poland at the beginning of 19th century. There is mentioned about feeding poultry by Zosia in national epopee “Pan Tadeusz”.
Do nóg jej bieglo ptactwo; stad kury szurpate
(Fowls were running to her; crested hens from here)
Tocza sie klebkiem, stamtad k o g u t k i c z u b a t e
(They are rolling like a ball, crested cooks from there)
Wstrzasajac koralowe na glowie szyszaki
(Shaking coral helmets on their heads)
I wioslujac skrzydlami przez bruzdy i krzaki,
(And rowing through furrows and bushes with their wings)
Szybko wyciagaja ostrozaste piety.
(They are pulling out spurred heels).
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Already cited Konstanty Pietruski wrote in his > Historya naturalna < (Natural history) at the year of 1886:
„Temu trzy lata dowiedziawszy sie, ze w mojem sasiedztwie, w Tustanowicach, znajduja sie paradne czubatki, poslalem dozorce mojego kurnika, azeby mi kupil kilka, dla porównania tych krajowych pieknosci z moimi polandami. Dostalem cztery przecudne kureczki, których jedna byla czysto brabancka z czubem wiszacym na bakier i z ogromna broda; druga równie piekna, podobna do polandów, chociaz zupelnie czystej rasy, cala mieniaca – czarno-zólto centkowana, z przepysznym bialym czubem na glowie; a dwie sliczniutkich czubatek wlasciwych. Pytam sie, jak to wytlumaczyc? Ta panna, od której te kury nabylem, trudnila sie od wielu lat hodowla czubatek galicyjskich, gniazda nigdy nie odswiezala. A co w tem wszystkiem najwazniejszego, to to, ze trzymala sobie do tych pieknosci kurzych koguta z bardzo malym czubem, a wielkim grzebieniem; ten zas wydawal po sobie kurczeta z tak ogromnymi czubami, ze im zupelnie wzrok zaslanialy”.
(When I found out three years ago, that there are parade crested fowls in my neighborhood, in Tustanowice, I sent my guard of hen house to buy me a few, just for comparison of this national beauties with my Poland’s. I have got four marvelous chickens, one of theme was pure Brabant with crest hanging slantwise and with huge bread; second one as well beautiful as first one was similar to Poland’s, even it was pure race, it was shining – with spotted black and yellow, with delicious white crest on it’s head, two others was lovely specific crested fowls. I asked him, how could you explain this? This miss I bought these hens from, she was carrying of breeding Galician fowls for many years, she had never make refreshing of nest. And what is the most important she had for these hen beauties a cook with very small crest but with huge comb, and this cook made chickens with so big crest that it curtained their eyes at all.)
* * *
Serious polish and foreign scientists confirmed thesis about unusual popularity of our crested fowls many years later. Joseph Viktorinii wasn’t going to proof in his book „Hodowla Drobiu” (Breeding of poultry) that he wrote in the year of 1921, that crested flows of different varieties of feathers and also of shape and size of crest are very common in our country. >Jest to rzecza zbyt dobrze znana, o której mozna sie naocznie w kazdym miejscu, w kazdym dworze, w kazdej niemal zagrodzie wloscianskiej na kazdym podmiejskim podwórku przekonac. Znalezc mozna wsród nich okazy zblizone do wszystkich 7 szlachetnych ras czubatych i to w miejscowosciach, gdzie nie tylko nikt nigdy nie sprowadzal zadnych kur, ale gdzie nawet pojecia o tem nie maja, z kury rozplodowe moga byc przedmiotem zamiejscowego handlu<
(This is a thing known too good, which we can check with own eyes in every place, in every manor, almost in every estate, in every suburb house. Among theme we can find all 7 noble, crested races, and there are in places, where even nobody ever import chickens, but also in places where nobody knows that study hens could be subject of foreign trade).
* * * *
Let’s take care of case, which is much more thorny, and which is a reason of big emotions until these days – case of polish nature of our beloved hens.
All available for us sources marked at the same time, that all crested fowls was called Poland’s at Middle Ages and than at 17th and 18th century, until beginning of 19th century. For sure they where ones of the most frequent bred hens due to their good looks. Joseph Victorinii dedicated a lot of work for this issue in his book “Hodowla Kur” (Breeding of hens) from 1921 year. > Badaniami czaszki tych kur zajmowali sie przyrodnicy w czasach bardzo odleglych. C. Borelli juz w 1656 roku stwierdzil obecnosc guzowatosci czaszki u p o l s k i c h c z u b a t e k. Nastepnie studiowal to zjawisko Bechstein w roku 1790, Blumenbach w roku 1805, Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, a w koncu K. Darwin poswieca temu przedmiotowi kilkanascie stron w swoim dziele p.t. „Zmiennosc zwierzat i roslin itd.” Na podstawie wlasnych obserwacji, jak równiez spostrzezen swoich poprzedników , wypowiedzial K. Darwin w tej kwestii zdanie, iz okazaly czub szlachetnych polskich czubatek, doprowadzony zostal do swoich rozmiarów droga selekcji, co w nastepstwie wplynelo na modyfikacje czaszki.
(Natural scientists were taking care of examination of those hens’ skulls long time ago. C. Borelli certified present of skull nodularity of Polish crested fowls already at 1656 year. Than this effect was studied in 1790 year by Bechstein, in 1805 by Blumenbach, by Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and at last C. Darwin dedicated several pages for this subject in his work “The Variation of Animals and Plants etc.” Basing on his own observations, as well as his predecessors observations, C. Darwin said his opinion on this matter, that splendid crest of nobles Polish crested fowls, was brought to its size on the way of selection, what in succession had result in modification of skull.)
“Przyrodnik i badacz tej miary co K. Darwin, stwierdza dalej niezbicie, iz nasze czubatki sa protoplastami innych odmian czubatek, gdyz wspominajac o tych ostatnich, powiada wyraznie, ze czaszki tychze przedstawiaja prawie te same wlasciwosci w strukturze co czaszki >p r a w d z i w y c h p o l s k i c h k u r<. Dalej w tym samym dziele przytacza Darwin, to co obecnie jest oczywiste jak to, ze 2x2=4, a wczesniej wcale takim oczywistym nie bylo, iz tak jak za pomoca starannego i celowego chowu mozna wytworzyc odrebna i doskonalsza rase, której cechy charakterystyczne staja sie coraz bardziej wybitniejsze, az w koncu linia ta moze sie przeobrazic w nowa rase lub odmiane, tak jak o s t a t n i o s t a l o s i e z k u r a m i p o l s k i m i.”
(Natural scientist and researcher with the same reputation as C. Darwin said with no doubts, that our crested fowls are ancestors of others varieties of crested fowls, because when he had mentioned about them, he said clearly that skulls of this fowls have almost the same features of structure as skulls of >true polish hens<. Further, in the same work Darwin cites this, what today is obvious as 2x2=4, but earlier it wasn’t so, that as well as thanks to sedulous and purposeful breeding it is possible to create separate and more perfect race, which characteristic features becoming more and more remarkable and at last this line can turn itself into new race or variety, just like it was happened with polish fowls latterly).
“Dodac nalezy, ze dzisiejsze czubatki szlachetne maja bez porównania bujniej rozwiniete i pelniejsze czuby od kur polskich czubatych z XVII i XVIII wieku, a doprowadzenie tych czubów do obecnych rozmiarów jest wlasnie dzielem doby wspólczesnej Darwinowi. Az do tej pory i lat pózniejszych nie bylo mowy w Niemczech o kwestionowaniu nazwy k u r y l s k i e”<.
(It is needed to be added, that nowadays noble crested have more luxuriantly and better filed crests without any comparison to polish crested fowls from 17th and 18th century, and bringing these crests to present sizes is made by period contemporary to Darwin. Until this time and until later years there wasn’t any idea to call into question the name of polish fowls in Germany.)
Dr.Adolfr Drechsler, secretary of Poultry Science Association in Dresden, membership of many nature associations didn’t mention about any Padoue, fowls in his book „Die Zuchthuhhner”, published in the year of 1857, but he did describe polish fowl (Polnisches Schleierhuhn, Polnisches Haubenhuhn), mentioning that according to colors of feather there are many variety of polish fowls
Was this political movement to constitute the name of Padoue fowl on congress in Dresden at the year of 1869? Opinions to this subject differ. Ones think simply that this name was using in Germany earlier. The others remind that at these times there was no Poland on map of the World thanks to three invaders – Russia, Germany and Austria. Therefore everything what was polish brings something bad to their minds. It was natural that “polish crested fowls” didn’t fit to contemporary political realities. Additionally, during last one hundred and fifty years, our German colleges next to Dutchmen and English had the biggest contribution to creating look of this race, which is currently obligatory, so we cannot decrease their merits. What is interesting, not always and not everybody agree to this senseless “political” name. In the year 1873, so after congress in Dresden, Oettel gave his protest by publishing of first detail description of crested fowls races. But even he make division to Polish and Dutch
Authors of this elaboration got to Russian sources during collecting materials thanks to their inquisitiveness. Vyacheslav Komov from St. Petersburg gave us access to inspect Abozin’s book form the year of 1882, where author describing crested fowls has no doubts – he present them as polish fowls. Fact that there is beautiful portrait of Polish crested hen with big beard on the cover, gives us a proof that even he did appreciate the beauty of this fowl. How brutal the true is at this place: absents have no right. Poland disappeared from world map for over 120 years. So if there was no Poland at that time, it was natural that the name > Polish crested fowls< also had no right to exist. Breeding of this primeval Polish fowl was slowly rebuilding in Poland at twenty years of interwar period. Many publications about crested fowl, which we readily used in this elaboration, came exactly from this period. Unfortunately The Second World War and then the omnipresent communism made successive, huge devastations in breeding of decoration fowls during over 50 years. Only since the 1990 Polish can enjoy their freedom and there are no barriers, which can limit developing of our wonderful hobby.
During collection of materials for this elaboration, we thumbed many of earlier works and publications about crested fowls. One train is unchangeable and leading in all of this works – this is analyze of the name of crested fowls, especially analyze of word “Polish”. We have to admit that we had extremely good fun during reading of some “works”.
We think we tackled the name “Padoue” distinctly enough. Now its time for other names:
Cited above Konstanty from Siemaszkowa Pietruska wrote in his „Swojskich kurach”(Familiar fowls) from the year of 1886, that English called crested fowls Polish not because they would come from Poland, but from the reason of crest of these fowls, which is similar to elf-lock, which in Latin has a name „Plica polonica”. You have to admit dear readers, that this is not a good reason to be pride with. If even we the Polish could stand this unpleasant name in relation to our selves, we would agree. But there is no agreement to give such a nasty name to our beloved, the most beautiful of the world fowls.
Wiaczeslaw Komov adduced few Russian author in St. Petersburg, among of them there was Obozin, they said that name “Polish” was taken from decorative szyszak (helmet), a headgear, something in kind of decorative helmet with feathers, which Polish knights used to wear. We treat this case much better. The Polish was known from their gallantry and fantasia. Not always they were dutifull enough, but they always be able to enjoy their lives especially to use their freedom, sometimes too much.
Unusual is also anecdote about French name of our fowls. In the year of 1885, on meeting of "Acclimatisation Association", Mrs. Passy presented wide elaboration, in which she wrote that crested fowls so applied to famous margrave Pompadour and they was so beloved by her that they even had got a name P o m p a d o u r , with this name become shorted to P a d o u e , an at last it was reduced to P a d o u e. It seems, that even French didn’t like city Padua with its Padoue fowls. It’s a pity that . Margrave Pompadour ended so badly.
Much more likely is origin the name of crested fowls from part of contemporary Poland, nowadays of Ukraine – called Podole. Maybe crested fowls came to Italy of 16th century under the name of “podolskie”, and it was modified there to more familiar for Italian. Maybe was it made by Aldrovandi?
Also the Polish took part in complicated translation of name “Polish”. Despite all these functioned in different countries names, it is commonly acknowledged that bearded crested fowls are descended from Poland, for long time our compatriots couldn’t find explanation where did the name „white crested Hollands” (hollander haubenhunter). Finally they said it is an effect of mistake in translation, because Poland and Holland are very easy to confuse.
In many western elaborations published - it worth to mark this – in period when there was no Poland on map of the World for over 120 years, so it is from the year of 1792 to 1917, there were occurring opinions that crested fowls commonly present on yards was Russian fowls. This point of view is presented by one of the biggest authority of ornithology area, especially of poultry, Mr Brunon Durigen. He says, that either Italy as Dutch countries was carrying out dynamic trade with East and that crested fowls could be easy imported to them from– here is quote - >Polish-Russian<AREAS. from are they that be of is the in and have as for which crested This to similar was example an quotes author countries. German various ruling dukes Russian gift a Germany Poland bringing notoriously were fowls added, finally Durigen B. Furthermore, fowls. French races new create used where France, imported especially more, more popularized would countries above mentioned From earlier. now very Polish-Russian blood fowls, Polverar;s quantity small Padoue think senior, Marten H. e.g. Durigenie, on based authors, other remember, worth It>Polish fowls< sent by Russian tsar to Frederic Wilhelm III (1668-1713), Prussian king, they were putted on Peacock Island next to Potsdam. From this moment (by Durigen) their English names Polish fowl, Polish are dated.
What conclusions we can use to connect this section of our elaboration. Taking in consideration, that Russian episode has very big meaning in this place. It’s worth to ask, haw should they call Polish fowls when word Poland was very disturbing? And it was disturbing for all three conquerors – Austria, Prussia and Russia. What is the conclusion at this moment? We will answer but not in simple way: In Poland there is very popular dictum – point of view depends from point of sitting. Even in such trivial case, like it could be seemed, as the name of one of decorative fowl race, politics shows its teeth.
Oh irony! For many years this native Polish fowl, Polish crested fowl wasn’t in Poland. And these few persons, which came a long way „z ziemi wloskiej do Polski” (From Italy to Poland), they came via Germany, so what name should they have if I wouldn’t Padoue? Practically in Poland we have known about Polish fowls from England and USA only several, maybe twenty years ago, at this time first specimens came to us from there, and it wasn’t as usual from National Republic Of Germany or Czechoslovakia – and suddenly occurred surprising: Is it our race? One of undersigned bought his first hens as Padoue, only in the year of 1997 or 98 he found out haw this race is commonly called on the world, when he was browsing atlas of poultry "American Standard of Perfection” By the way: presuming European can’t see, that now a lot of work for our fowls give …. Americans. Exactly they, the Americans, and not the starchy and "fossil with their rules" europeans, create new color varieties – even those like khaki, chocolate or porcelain – lets think for a while, isn’t it the ability to show our talents also for Polish breeders. Slowly this fowl becoming to be called national fowl, what our western colleges amd breeders should understand and don’t see this as something wrong.
This is one more digression. Authors of different elaborations are sniveling, that there is less and less of crested fowls breeders. We cannot agree with this statement. It depends, where is less of theme. Western colleges didn’t notice, that in other countries, even in Poland, snappy development of decoration fowls breeding, including Polish fowls since opening of European borders. Until end of September 2005, declaration to submit to our Polish Fowls Club was filled up by 162 persons. In this moment we can remind anecdote about a king, who traveling in his beautiful, gold coach, stepped off for a moment to have a pee, and he looked on his pennies so intensively, that he didn’t notice that his coach had gone away. Maybe it is good time, to find a place for new membership on this long breedership bench. With benefits for all of us.
Making conclusion – although cradle of this race is deep Asia, although that the Polish didn’t have breeding of contemporary Polish fowls for many years, although that during centuries we had no idea, that somewhere on the world this fowl is breeding, changing, ameliorating, we have moral right to the name of Polish fowls, we have this right because the Polish started planned breeding, made standardization of stock, created colors varieties, and a last they showed Polish fowls to the World and if our forebears from Eastern Border Lands didn’t have romantic souls, thanks to which they was traveling and taking together with them everything what was beautiful and precious, or as result of dynamic trade contacts they “borrowed” their treasures to Italian or Dutch merchants, the most beautiful fowl on the World wouldn’t exist!
In closing we cannot resist to deeper reflection. Following lots of forming of either present model as the name of our beloved hen, it is hard not to noticed on this example how strength and complicated is history of Europe. Haw huge there is penetration between cultures, traditions, customs. Haw long way did it make to become due to her beauty a Quinn of all fowls – through Russia, Poland, Italy England, Holland, Germany, United States - she came back to Poland again. An in each of this country, more or less thousands or maybe hundreds of thousand of breeders gave their participation to development of this race. Is it worth to make lactation – who is more important and has bigger merits? Should we break up a war because of it? On the contrary – this is perfect opportunity to this fowl to connect us. So enjoy its beauty, enjoy every new color variety occurring, simply lets enjoy our lives and our selves thanks to it. Today in the era of internet and globalization lets talk – Englishman with American, Dutchman with Dutchman and German with Pole.
Stanislaw Roszkowski - Jaroslaw Wartacz
* * *References * * *
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